Research ethics is not just mere requirements written in a digest or code of ethics, but also the researcher’s philosophical and value position, as well as the discussion continuing for many decades and learning from painful mistakes, as shown by the review of the history of research. The principles of research ethics are as follows:
It is a must to achieve honesty in all science-related communication. The scientist must honestly present information on the data, results, research methods and procedures, and publication status. It is prohibited to falsify and distort the data, to deceive colleagues, agencies aiding grants, or the public.
Partiality should be avoided in the formulation of the research stages plan, analyzing and interpreting data, as well as evaluating the work of colleagues, recruiting the staff, writing applications for the award of grants, giving expert testimony, and other aspects of the scientific research where objectivity is essential. It is recommended to try to avoid partiality and self-deception. The researcher must disclose any personal or financial interests that might influence the scientific research.
The researcher must comply with the promises and agreements, be honest and seek the sustainability of thoughts and actions. Prudence The researcher must avoid careless errors and omissions. It is important to evaluate carefully and critically both own and colleagues’ work. It is proposed to collect/ systematize good, research-related activity (e.g., data collection, planning research stages and correspondence with agencies and journals), notes.
The researcher must share the data, ideas, tools, and resources, be open to criticism and
new ideas. Respect for intellectual property The researcher must respect patents, copyright rights, and other forms of intellectual property, not to use unpublished research data, methods, or results without permission, quote where you must cite and thank properly for their help in the research. It is strictly forbidden for the researcher to plagiarize.
The investigator must save confidential information, such as articles submitted for publication, records of employees, professional or military secrets and the records of patients’ health stories. Responsible publication The researcher should publicize the results of the research for the sake of science and scientific research and not for the benefit of his career. The scientist should avoid unnecessary publication or republication.
The researcher should help educate students, guide and advise them in order of their well-being, and allowing themselves to make decisions.
Respect for colleagues
The researcher must respect his/her colleagues and deal with them honestly. Social responsibility The researcher must promote social welfare and try to avoid harm or reduce it through research, public education, and advocacy activities.
The researcher must avoid discrimination against students or colleagues of sex, race, nationality, or other factors unrelated to scientific excellence and honesty.
The researcher must maintain and improve own professional competence through lifelong learning, and take measures to promote competence in science.
The researcher must have knowledge of relevant laws for his/her work as well as institutional and government policies and comply with them.
Security of people involved in scientific research
Conducting scientific research with human beings, one must strive to minimize the damage and the risks and maximize the benefit. The researcher must respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy. The researcher must take special precautions, working with vulnerable populations, and seek a fair distribution of the research benefits and burdens.
Shamoo AE, Resnik DB. Responsible Conduct of Research. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford
University Press; 2015. 360 p. ISBN-10: 0199376026
Žukauskas P, Vveinhardt J, Andriukaitienė R. Research Ethics. Management Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility. 2018 Apr 18:141.